Saturday, May 25, 2019

Internal Combustion Engine and no Diversion Required

ETOPS DEFINITIONS ETOPS argon those flights conducted over a route that contains a point further than wiz hour flying snip at one engine inoperative, still air cruise speed under standard conditions from an comely demarcationPORT. 430 NMs for A-310 for one hour. We have 120 minutes ETOPS approval from DGCA. ADEQUATE gloriolePORT is an airport that meets the landing place performance requirements of the aircraft ie. Ruway length, ATC, Lighting, Communications, endure reporting, Nav Aids, airport facilities and at least one instrument approach.Adequate Airports are selected at the time of planning ETOPS routes. Not necessary to meet PCN requirements. ACN may exceed PCN when airport is used in an Emergency not normal use desirable AIRPORT is an ADEQUATE AIRPORT which at the ANTICIPATED time of use. 1 Hour before earliest E. T. A. to 1 Hour after latest E. T. A. has weather reports OR forecasts which indicate the weather conditions to be at or above the approved minima. The X Wind component for Runway expected should be below permitted X Wind limits. IMPORTANTADEQUATE AIRPORTS are fixed when planning route. SUITABLE AIRPORTS vary for each flight depending upon real time weather, Facilities available/not available, etc. applicable at the time of put to death of an ETOPS flight. In case of an actual Diversion to a SUITABLE AIRPORT, normal landing minima will apply. Check Wx for SUITABLE AIRPORT is above landing minima for that airport before entry into ETOPS area. ADEQUATE AIRPORTS may temporarily become unsuitable if any of the requirements of a ADEQUATE AIRPORT may be temporarily unavailable.WEATHER MINIMA Weather minima for airports designated as suitable enroute alternates under ETOPS Regulations are prescribed as under. It must be noted that the minima shown hereunder are for despatch release purposes just and in the causa of an actual diversion, the applicable landing minima for that airport will be the controlling factor. Further, these minima s are for precision/non precision approaches at the respective airports.In the event ILS is not available, the despatch ETOP minima for that airport should be determined as per FAA Advisory circular AC 120 42A dated 30. 12. 1988 which lays down the following criteria. 1. Airports with 2 or more ILS on separate runways crown of four hundredft and visibility of 1600m or Ceiling of 200ft and visibility of 800m above the appoint ILS landing minima HIGHER. 2. Airports with ILS on single runway Ceiling of 600ft and visibility of 3200m or Ceiling of 400ft and visibility of 1600m above the authorised ILS landing minimaHIGHER. . Airports with non precision approaches Ceiling of 800ft and visibility of 3200m or Ceiling of 400ft and visibility of 1600m above the authorised non precision landing minima whichever is higher. NOTE * Based on the consideration RW 09/27 is available. To be used only when RW 09/27 is not available for operation. CHANGING alternating(a) IN flight of stairs T here is no restriction on the Commander in changing the alternate in flight, after taking into consideration every factors, provided the aforesaid conditions are satisfied.In an emergency, the Commanders can act in the best interest of the Company and occupants of the aircraft. pleasure STRATEGIES Diversions due to land ASAP situations. 1. In Flight railway locomotive Fire. 2. APU Fire. 3. Single Engine Operation. 4. Loss of Both Engine Generators. 5. Avionics Smoke. 6. Cargo Compartment Smoke. 7. Dual Hydraulic System Lo Pressure. Critical fuel Scenarios are 1. Engine Failure. 2. Pressurisation Failure. 3. Engine & Pressurisation Failure. Depending upon the situation, 3 Strategies are used 1. ELECTRICAL GENERATION AVAILABLE GENERATORs AT after(prenominal) 1ST GEN FAILED AFTER 2nd GEN FAILED OR APU AFTER tertiary GEN FAILED send off NOT AVAILABLE NORMAL DESPATCH 2 ENG START APU NO DIVERSION call for DIVERSION REQUIRED 1 APU NO DIVERSION REQUIRED 1 STANDBY MEL OR NORMAL 2 ENG NO DIVERSION REQUIRED DIVERSION REQUIRED NOT APPLICABLE 1 APU MEL DESPATCH 2 ENG 1 STANDBY (b) (b) STANDBY GENERATOR TO BE bearED ON GROUND. 2. ALWAYS DIVERT TO NEAREST SUITABLE AIRPORT FOR CARGO SMOKE. 3. IF ballpark HYDRAULIC LOST, STANDBY GENERATOR U/S, FACTOR THIS IN CASE OF MEL RELEASE FOR ELECTRICAL, SUBSEQUENT ELECTRICAL FAILURES. MEL DESPATCH CONSIDERATIONS FOR ETOPs NOT EXHAUSTIVE tour MEL FOR ACTUAL 1. AIR CONDITIONING. BOTH PACKS, PACK DEFLECT DOORS, TBV, PACK FAULT LIGHTS, PACK AUTO/MAN TEMPERATURE CONTROL. 2. PRESSURISATION. BOTH OUTFLOW VALVES. 3. VENTILATION.BLOWER FAN, EXTRACT FAN, OVBD VALVE, INBD VALVE. 4. AUTO FLIGHT SYSTEM. PITCH neat FOR ER, 2 peradventure INOPERATIVE. BUT BOTH OPERATIVE FROM BASE. AUTO PILOT 1 AUTO PILOT OFF WARNING MESSAGE. TCC & AUTO THROTTLE ACTUATOR MAYBE INOPERATIVE. FOR 1 FLIGHT TO AIRPORT WHERE REPAIRS CAN BE MADE 5. ELECTRICAL. STANDBY GEN MUST BE OPERATIVE. DESPATCH entirelyOWED FOR 1 FLIGHT TO A IRPORT WHERE REPAIRS CAN BE MADE. OR FOR ER MAY BE INOPERATIVE PROVIDED APU GENERATOR AVAILABLE AND OPERATES CONTINOUSLY WHEN IN ETOPS SECTOR BEYOND 60 MINUTES FROM AN ADEQUATE AIRPORT APU GEN EXCEPT FOR ER MAYBE INOP OR FOR ER OPERATIONS UPTO 120 MINUTES, APU GEN MAYBE U/S PROVIDED STANDBY GENERATOR IS OPERATIVE. 6.FIRE PROTECTION. BOTH FIRE LOOPS ON EACH locomotive engine. 7. CRT. ALL CRTs, ECAM SGU, FWC. ONLY IRS 2 CAN BE INOPERATIVE. IRS 1 & IRS 3 MUST BE OPERATIVE. BOTH FMS. 8. PNEUMATIC. BOTH BLEED SYSTEMS, BLEED VALVES. 9. ENGINE IGNITION. CHECK MEL. 10. IMPORTANT FOR ETOPS STANDBY HORIZON, BOTH OIL QUANTITY, arouse QUANTITY INDICATIONS, DC ESS ON BATT LIGHT, APU INDICATIONS ON ECAM, provide X FEED, 2 HF, 2 VHF. ETOPS FUEL AND FLIGHT PLANNING EEP ETOPS ENTRY POINT. THAT POINT ON ROUTE WHICH IS FURTHER THAN genius HOUR FROM AN ADEQUATE AIRPORT. EXP ETOPS EXIT POINT. THAT POINT ON ROUTE AT force out OF ETOPS SEGMENT WHERE AN ADEQUATE AIRPORT IS AVAILABLE WITHIN ONE HOUR .ETP EQUI TIME POINT BETWEEN TWO SUITABLE DIVERSION ALTERNATES. CRITICAL FUEL SCENARIOS IS FUEL REQUIRED anticipate A NORMAL FLIGHT AND 3 DIFFERENT FAILURE SCENARIOS AT CRITICAL POINT. THE 1 REQUIRING MOST FUEL IS ETOPS CRITICAL FUEL SCENARIO. THE THREE FAILURES ARE ( ENGINE FAIL. ( DE PRESSURISATION. ( ENGINE FAILURE AND DEPRESSURISATION. FUEL REQUIREMENT ? FUEL BURN OFF FROM CRITICAL POINT TO DIVERSION AIRPORT, trim down TO 1500 FEET OVERHEAD. ASSUMING SIMULTANEOUS FAILURE OF ENGINE AND PRESSURISATION, IMMEDIATE DESCENT TO 10,000 THEN CRUISE AT iodine ENGINE SPEED. ? 15 MINUTES HOLDING AT 1500 AT GREEN DOT SPEED. ? ONE INSTRUMENT APPROACH, SECOND VISUAL APPROACH. 5% OF FUEL BURN OFF AS CONTINGENCY FUEL. ? 5% FUEL gas mileage PENALTY OR A DEMONSTRATED PERFORMANCE FACTOR. ? EFFECT OF MEL CDL. ? APU FUEL CONSUMPTION IF REQUIRED AS POWER SOURCE. ? WIND AND MET CONDITIONS CONSIDERED FOR CRUISE AT SINGLE ENGINE ALTITUDE THEN TO DESCEND AND LAND INCLUDING ICING CONDITIONS, WING AN TI ICE, NACELLE ANTI ICE AND DRAG FROM ICE ON UNHEATED PORTIONS OF AIRCRAFT. ? ATC CONSTRAINTS. AIR INDIA ETOPS FLIGHT PLAN ETOPS ANALYSIS. CIRCULAR A310/99/RED-11. FOR THE CHOSEN SUITABLE PAIR OF AIRPORTS FOR THE FLIGHT, THE EARLIEST/LATEST TIME OF ARRIVAL IS GIVEN. EXAMPLEVOMM SUITABLE 2140Z/0139Z EARLIEST BASED ON 2 ENGS, LATEST 1 ENG WMKP SUITABLE 2335Z/0139ZTHESE TIMES ARE BASED ON ONE HOUR BEFORE EARLIEST ARRIVAL TO ONE HOUR AFTER LATEST ARRIVAL. EARLIEST ARRIVAL TIME BASED ON TWO ENGINE OPERATIVE SPEED. LATEST ARRIVAL TIME BASED ON ONE ENGINE INOPERATIVE SPEED. THE CRITICAL FUEL unhurriedness IS BASED ON ABOVE CHOSEN PAIR OF SUITABLE ALTERNATES. FORMAT ? ETP LAT/LONG / quad FROM ORIGIN AIRPORT TO ETP / FLIGHT TIME FROM ORIGIN AIRPORT TO ETP / BURNOFF FROM ORIGIN AIRPORT TO ETP / ESTIMATED FUEL REMAINING OVER ETP. ? TIME FROM ETP TO ALTERNATE BASED ON ONE ENGINE FIXED TAS / TEMP AT FL100 AT ALTERNATE 1 / ETP / ALTERNATE 2 ? THEN FOLLOWS A SUMMARY OF GREAT draw DIST / MET DATA FROM ETP TO BOTH SUITABLE ALTERNATES. FUEL CALCULATION IS BASED ON LRC ALSO WEIGHT OVER ETP IS GIVEN. THE LAST PART CONTAINS THE CRITICAL FUEL CALCULATION REQUIRED TO DIVERT TO ALTERNATES FROM ETP. ? THE FIRST COLUMN ON THE LEFT SIDE GIVES THE MOST LIMITING FUEL REQUIRED FOLLOWED BY TIME FOR THE ENTIRE LINE. THE summate OF THIS COLUMN WHICH GIVES YOU THE TOTAL CRITICAL DIVERSION FUEL. ? TOTAL CRITICAL DIVERSION FUEL PLUS FUEL FROM ORIGINAL AIRPORT TO ETP IS EQUAL TO TOTAL ETOPS REQUIRED FROM ORIGIN. ? THE NORMAL FLIGHT PLAN FUEL SHOULD BE HIGHER THAN THIS FUEL. ? NOTE TAXI FUEL IS NOT INCLUDED IN THE ABOVE CALCULATIONS. STANDBY GEN CHECK DONE BY AME / FUEL X FEED CHECK FOR ETOPS. REFERENCES FOR ETOPS ? STANDING ORDERS PAGE 7 16 EXTRACTS ON NEXT PAGE ? FLIGHT DESPATCH manual(a) ? CIRCULARSA-310/1999/RED-118/4/99ETOPS FLIGHT PLANNING A-310/2001/RED-288/7/01ETOPS A-310 IMPORTANT CIRCULAR HAS ALL OUR ROUTES, ETOPS SEGMENTS AND ETOPS ALTERNATES ? OPS/HQ/A-310/92-4 26/8/92 ? J EPESSEN ETOPS WEATHER MINIMA STANDING ORDERS ON ETOPS ? NOTE IN CASE OF ENGINE FAILURE OR SINGLE/MUTIPLE PRIMARY SYSTEM FAILURE IT IS A REQUIREMENT THAT PILOT DIVERT TO NEAREST ADEQUATE/SUITABLE AIRPORT. ? AS FAR AS POSSIBLE RETURN OR PROCEED TO AN ONLINE AIRPORT WITHIN THE STIPULATED RANGE OR LAND AT AN AIRPORT ON THE TRACK. ? IF MORE THAN ONE SUITABLE ALTERNATE AVAILABLE, CONSIDER AVAILABILITY OF ENGINEERING. ETOPS ENROUTE ALTERNATES. SECTOR ALTERNATES MAA HKG MAA CHENNAI, capital of Thailand, PHUKET BBG SIN BBG CHENNAI, BANGKOK, PENANG, PHUKET, YANGOON SIN DEL PHUKET, CHENNAI, MUMBAI TRV SIN TRV COLOMBO, PENANG, PHUKET, CHENNAI / KUALA LUMPUR, CHENNAI / SINGAPORE BOM SIN BOM CHENNAI, BANGKOK, PENANG, YANGOON, PHUKET MAA KUL- MAA MAA SIN MAA BOM DES BOM SALALAH / MOMBASA BOM NBO BOM SALALAH / SEYCHELLES. manlike / SEYCHELLES NO OBSTACLE (STANDARD STRATEGY) DESCEND WITH MCT/M0. 80/300 KTS ON REACHING S. E. ALT LRC 2. 16. 30 Pg 7 TO 10 OBSTACLE PROBLEM (OBSTACLE STRATEGY) DRIFT DOWN WITH GREEN DOT SPD. MCT 2. 16. 30 1-2 AT D. D. ALT. IF OBSTL NOT CLD. MAINTAIN GREEN DOT/MCT, SEL HIGHER ALT TO CLR OBS. AND LVL CHG TO ACHIEVE ASC CRZ. IF OBS CLRD. FOR SUBSEQUENT CRZ USE LRC 2. 16. 30 Pg. 7 TO 10 MINIMUM TIME DIVERSION (MIN TIME DIVERSION STRATEGY) FOR UN- EXTINGUISHED FIRE,SMOKE DESCEND AT MCT & M0. 84/340 KTS RECOMMENDED FL180 TO FL200 ON REACHING S. E. ALT. MAINTAIN MCT OR REQ pierce FOR 340 KTS. 2. 16. 40 Pg. 2 4 FL180 FL200 PRECISION APPROACH NON PRECISION APPROACH AIRPORT CEILING ft VISIBILITY mtrs CEILING ft VISIBILITY mtrs ADEN - - 890 3600 BANGKOK 400 1600 910 4000 CHENNAI 650 3200 1250 6000 CHIANG MAI 690 3200 1170 5200 COLOMBO 630 3200 910 3600 DANANG 690 3200 1070 4800 DAR E SALAAM 600 3200 1070 4800 DEN PASAR (Bali) 700 3200 860 3600 DJIBOUTI 600 3200 900 3800 HANOI 630 3200 1000 4000 JAKARTA 420 2000 890 4000 KARACHI 620 3200 790 3200 KUALA LUMPUR 400 1600 940 4000 KUNMING 6 80 3200 1200 5200 LEARMONTH - - 900 4900 MALE 730 3200 870 3600 MOMBASA 600 3200 860 3600 MUMBAI * 610 * 3200 1760 6400 900 4400 MUSCAT 620 3200 960 4000 NAIROBI 600 3200 1200 6000 PENANG 690 3200 1550 5600 PHUKET - - 1270 5600 SALALAH 620 3200 830 3600 SEYCHELLES 840 4000 1390 6400 SINGAPORE 400 1600 970 4000 YANGON 670 3200 900 5300 ETOP MINIMA FOR AIRPORTS WHICH CAN BE USED IN PLACE OF BOMBAY FOR GULF SECTORS 14 NOV 2002 AHMEDABAD 650 3200 950 5200 CALICUT 1060 5100 1450 6600 COCHIN 690 3200 1010 4400 GOA 850 3500 990 4800 TRIVANDRUM 650 3200 1170 6000 LAND ASAP DIVERSION SUMMARY FAIL ENGINE FIRE ENGINE OR APU SMOKE AVIONICS CARGO DUAL GENERATORS, HYDRAULIC

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