Thursday, October 3, 2019
Case Study Marketing: Nyquil
Case Study Marketing: Nyquil Nyquil is a brand of over the counter drug produced by Vicks, which is a division of the Procter and Gamble Company. This drug comes in form of syrup and liquid capsules and tablets that are used to for the treatment of a wide range of cold symptoms. Marketing of Nyquil is done both in the domestic market and internationally by the Procter and gamble through it Vicks subsidiary that it bought from Richardson Vicks in 2005.Vicks is known world widely for its marketing of branded consumer health care products. Before its acquisition by PG the Vicks Company had more than thirty subsidiaries all over the world some of which were acquired by PG too. One of them is the India Richardson Hindustan Limited (RVL) Company that has greatly contributed in the manufacturing and distribution of the Nyquil drug (Richardson Vicks Inc. (RVI)).Nyquil is the number one drug recommended by pharmacists for night time relief of cold among adults and it is available in more than 70 countries within five continents where its distributed by varied PG distributors. Drug distributors in pharmacies, government and private hospital and pharmaceutical companies get their Nyquil drugs shipped to their countries with the by the manufactures and the Subsidiaries of PG pharmaceutical products. This physical distribution of the drug is done through a well organized supply chain that spreads from the manufacture to the consumer. The purchasing of this drug can either be done by physically visiting the pharmaceutical companies or by placing online bids through website like Amazon.com and Vicks.com Some pharmaceutical companies that dont produce the Nyquil drug act as the distribution centers by buying the drug in bulk from Vicks company and other pharmaceutical associated with PG and they repackage it with direction and permission from the manufacturer. Such companies employ sales agents who sell the drug either directly or through the internet. They market Nyquil to the wholesalers, private buyers, hospitals and sometimes to selected retail dealers. The wholesalers buy from such companies, break the bulk and redistribute the drug to the retail sellers in pharmacies and small private hospitals. This multi channel distribution of Nyquil has made it easy to export the drug to various markets all over the world. The marketing of the Nyquil drug has for the longest of time been assisted by its brand strength. Mention Nyquil to any American and they will understand what you are taking about. In fact it could equally qualify as the most abused cold over the counter drug since it has a sedating effect on its user. Widespread television radio and print advertisement have helped create product awareness and created ideal market exposure for the drug. The liquid variation of Nyquil was tested for the first time in 1966, and officially launched into the market in 1968 with several television and magazine advertisement and recommendation from the medical world. Consequently, Procter and Gamble used $ 17 million dollars to promote liquid Nyquil during its launch in 1980(New York Magazine 12 Vol. 24, No. 38) Further more, Nyquil has become a common name to most house holds in American households and its the mostly recommended over the counter drug for remedying cold symptoms. Its slogan that calls it The nighttime, sniffling, sneezing, coughing, aching, best-sleep-you-ever-got-with-a-cold medicine is an eye catcher for anyone displaying the mentioned symptoms of a cold. With this slogan comes a list of Nyquil variation, each tailored to the different formulations on offer. More over the Nyquil Liquid medication is available in ranges of the Soothing Original, Soothing Cherry, and Vanilla Cherry Swirl. The earliest marketing of Nyquil also created a niche market for it as the best night time relieve for cold since it has an ingredient that makes someone drowsy and help him sleep peaceful. This quality of Nyquil was previously critiqued by those who didnt want to use a cold remedy with the intention of sleeping immediately. To maintain the drugs niche and retain her customers Vicks company came up with Dayquil, a daytime counter part of Nyquil which does not contain the sedating ingredients or alcohol that is found in Nyquil. Therefore, Procter and gamble s able to satisfy both the day time and night time consumers of effective cold remedy. Another marketing method used in the marketing of Nyquil is the use of Nyquil Coupons. This coupons which are distributed by either Procter and Gamble Sunday News Circular supplement called PG Brand Saver, from the physicians and allergists, weekly circular of pharmacies like Walgreens and CVS or in third party Coupon Sites like Coupon.Com.These coupons enables to one buy Nyquil medication at a discounted rate during a repeat purchase and are working to attract and sustain repeat buyers of the product. To make it easier for customers the coupons are available in clippable and printable online form, and so any person is able to access them (Pharmacy Drug Guide.com). Another promotion strategy that was launched for this product in 2009 was the use of social media Facebook.According to the a customer review the most attractive thing about the Nyquil face book page was that the introductory language used in it did not try to get you straight to the product but first told you about the page itself detailing the growing number of its fans in order to make someone feel like he was missing out on something. During the same period it had a free Nyquil T-shirt offer for the Nyquil customers who posted the best peaceful sleeping photos purported to have been taken after one had taken Nyquil for their cold. According to another blogger, it took only 7 days for the number of Nyquil fans to grow from 30199 to 95,125 and in the next twenty four hours they had grown to a hundred thousand. This kind of marketing has created an extensive exposure to the product and interested buyers from all over the world can easily access information on it. In effect, the approach has helped in creating wide spread product knowledge and in beating the common misconceptions that competitor sometimes spread about the product. Other than face book, marketers at PG use different Websites to advertise their product. For instance, Vicks.com is a website that gives product information on all the variations of Nyquil medication and any promotions involved in its purchase and where to shop for it. For instance, on the Nyquil and Dayquil product information page there is information on the availability of Combo packages of the drug and on the promotion page there is a promotional advert that asks someone to Search Nyquil on face book to enter the Vicks Nyquil/Dayquil search for the most dedicated NFL fan. The Promotion catch line is In the NFL there are no sick days. Such promotional activities are aimed at appealing the drug to the NFL fans (Vicks.com). The marketers of Nyquil have also been known to market the product through creation of its demand. This kind of marketing plays on human psychology by using words that are attractive to the consumer. Most Nyquil advertisements Market it as a medication that that work while a person is sleeping. This is interpreted to mean that it does not interfere with a persons daytime schedule. This night time appeal combined with the fact Nyquil tablet comes in not only Tablet and capsule form but also in liquid form helped increase the demand for the product. In essence there fore Nyquil is perceived as the most potent cold medication. This is a pull approach that helps in attracting consumers to the product without the manufacturer prodding them to do so. Although NyQuil contains 25% alcohol this remedy has become the gold mark of cold medication. However, the variation of Nyquil given to children only come in syrup form and does not contain any alcohol. When it comes to customer care, PG aims at providing the best for her Nyquil customers who are spread all over the world. The task of handling so many customers can be quite a logistic burden and man power burden to one company. There fore, PG usually out-sources the customer care service from Public Relation experts on contract basis. This extra service complements and helps to build up the customer skills displayed by PG personnels. For instance on June 30th, 2003 the company outsourced the customer care expertise of Syke Enterprises Incorporated on a five year contract at a cost of 70 million. Sykes, a reknown giant in provision of customer care services was to provide customer care management services and help provide solution to the P G consumer problem and help save cost. Part 2 Although the above marketing methods have helped open the sales gates for Nyquil some of them have achieved decreasing sustainability. For instance, in some cases PG has been accused of engaging in illegal marketing strategies in the promotion of Nyquil. Example was in the late 2009 when PG got itself under the scrutiny of the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) for illegally touting two Vicks branded over-the -counter drugs, Vicks Nyquil plus vitamin C and its day time counterpart Vicks daytime plus vitamin C as both a medication for cold as well as a dietary supplements. The marketing language used on this drugs said that they worked by combining the powerful multi symptom relief of Dayquil with more than 150% of the recommended value of vitamin. This was done as a marketing strategy during the time of a swine flu epidemic but FDA claimed that there isnt well researched and verified material that shows vitamin C helps in prevention of colds. Consequently, the company was given 15 day s to amend the violation (Straczynski). Market competitors of Nyquil have also critiqued the use of alcohol as an ingredient to the drug. This has led to the rampant abuse of the drug is search for the high that is derived from its overdose. Although its manufacturers tried remedying this problem by changing the formulation of this medication it realized that the sedating quality of the medicine was still needed by those suffering from cold. This made customers abandon the New Nyquil in search for a drug with the qualities of the original Nyquil. Vicks was forced to revert back to the old formulation but the Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005 only allows regulated over the counter purchase of this drug. Another critique is in the use of social media where one is only able to access the Nyquil page through series of applications that asks for private information that may drive away potential customers. The Nyquil wall does not allow interactive participation of the fans and it fails on not engaging customers enough. Consequently, Instead of using the platform to engage their user they have reverted to the traditional marketing tactic where you are only allowed to see the product but you cannot comment on it. They forget that the number of fans on a social website page does not always translate to potential customers since some people just like them for nostalgic reasons. Lastly although the drug has become a brand in America, it may have corresponding competition from other cold remedy manufacturers when it goes to outside markets. Never the less most of the advertisement and promotional activities have been concentrated in America where there is already saturation of information. In consequence there the following remedial measures should be taken in marketing of Nyquil. Instead of the manufacturer constantly changing the drug formulation due to its controversial sedating characteristics caused by the alcohol ingredient(Green 60), its marketers should be confident with the original Nyquil and market it as it is, since market research has shown that most initial consumers of this drug prefer it in its original form. Different formulation of the same medication erodes the consumer confidence in the product. Second, if the marketers of Nyquil plan to use social media network for marketing and advertisement purposes they should do it in a way that allows for consumer feed back. Lack of interaction creates disinterest and most potential consumers are likely to dislike the Nyquil page. 3. Illegal marketing strategy that gives lying information to consumers a marketing no-no that should be discouraged at any chance. Nyquil marketers should only advertise the truth about the product because customers may abandon the product when they find out that someone has been lying about it (Straczynski).This will happen due to reduced confidence in a product. 4. Finally, if PG want to increase it sale of Nyquil to the market outside America, is should increase, it advertising and promotional activities in these countries through its subsidiaries and distributors. This will accentuate the sales volumes especially from the largely untapped market. Research study: factors that enable depression Research study: factors that enable depression Introduction Research studies are essential to the practice of Social Work. Social Work practice is extremely complex and research studies allow social workers to develop theories and hypotheses that will help them understand the root of the issues that their clients are experiencing. Academic evidence is vital for backing up the practices, policies and values that underpin Social Work practice. Academic research not only benefits the social worker through the expansion of their knowledge but can also benefit clients and society at a policy level. In this essay I will be evaluating the research carried out by Brown and Harris (1984) in their book Ã¢â¬Å"Social origins of depression: a study of psychiatric disorder in womenÃ¢â¬ , specifically on chapter 10, Ã¢â¬Å"Social class, provoking agents and depressionÃ¢â¬ . Brown and Harris carried out this research to find out how life events and social and cultural factors may lead to the development of depression amongst women. I will briefly descri be their study and their findings and then discuss the methodology they used and the advantages and disadvantages of their methodology. I will also discuss how Brown and HarrisÃ¢â¬â¢ research is extremely important and influential for the practice of Social Work and how the study is still used today to show how social and cultural factors can lead to depression. Description of study and findings The study aimed to find out how social factors and life events lead to womenÃ¢â¬â¢s depression. They sampled 458 women in the south London area of Camberwell and surveyed them using Ã¢â¬Å"clinical based interviewsÃ¢â¬ (Brown Harris 1984) on their daily lives and depression. Brown and Harris aim to contest the wide spread belief that depression is more common amongst women of higher social classes, as asserted by previous studies carried out by sociologist Pauline Bart, psychiatrist Ernest Becker and psychologist Charles Costello. Brown and HarrisÃ¢â¬â¢ study contests this idea that middle class women are more likely to develop depression as they found in their study of 458 women that it was much more common for those who were working class to develop a psychiatric disorder, depression in particular. They found that 23% of working class women were Ã¢â¬Å"considered casesÃ¢â¬ as opposed to only 6% of middle class women. They measured the social class of the women by the occ upations of the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s husbands and when this wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t available they used the occupation of the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s father to determine their social class. In addition to class differences, Brown and Harris also looked at the Ã¢â¬Å"five life stagesÃ¢â¬ which consisted of, three stages where women has a child at home with the youngest child being less than 6, between 6 and 14 and 15 and over. The remaining two life stages consisted of women younger than 35 where there was no child at home and women over 35 where there was no child at home. They found that in all life stages, working class women had a higher rate of depression than middle class women. Most notably, the highest percentage was of 31% for working class women with a child of less than 6 compared to 5% of middle class women. Brown and Harris found that depression was more prevalent amongst women of working class because there is greater vulnerability attached to working class. Vulnerability factors included lack of a confiding relationship, loss of mother before age of 11, unemployment, poor housing and low finances. These vulnerability factors, which were more common amongst those women who were working class, were found to increase the chance of developing depression. Vulnerability factors, when combined with stressful life events, like divorce, illness and death, which Brown and Harris called Ã¢â¬Å"provoking agentsÃ¢â¬ further increased the chances of developing depression amongst working class women as they are more vulnerable with less support, financial and familial. These provoking agents or life events were ranked in severity by Brown and Harris, ranging from the most severe being Ã¢â¬Å"deathÃ¢â¬ to the least Ã¢â¬Å"residence changeÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"When social class is considered it is onl y severe events that show a class difference and then only among women with childrenÃ¢â¬ (Brown Harris 1984) , for both working and middle class women without children 1 in 3 experience at least one severe life event in the year, however when considering those with children the number stays the same for working class women, 1 in 3 whereas it drops to 1 in 5 for middle class women with children, implying that middle class women with children are more protected from provoking agents that lead to depression. The study concluded that social factors and life events are linked to depression. Working class women were more likely to develop depression than middle class women in all instances showing that the risk of developing depression is linked to social class. Brown and Harris found that being from a lower class meant increased vulnerability and greater chance of being exposed to provoking agents than middle class women. Importance to Social Work The study by Brown and Harris has been marked for many years by a combination of imaginative flair and commitment to the rigorous testing of their ideas (Tennant and Bebbington 1978). This study is extremely important to social work practice as it providing a turning point in looking at depression amongst women. The study provided an awareness of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s mental health. Before this study, most research focused on personality traits and experiences in childhood that linked women to depression, however Brown and HarrisÃ¢â¬â¢ study was different in that it investigated the social and cultural factors related to womenÃ¢â¬â¢s mental health. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a very important study as it recognized that depression could be linked to social class and that life events or difficulties relating to social class could provoke the development of depression. Brown and HarrisÃ¢â¬â¢ study is very important to the practice of social work as it provided a theory of the relationship between socia l class or status and depression amongst women and a clear understanding that poverty is linked to depression. In addition to finding a link between class and depression, this study is also very significant to social work as it allowed for the broadening of perspectives. Before, there was a medicalised model or way of looking at depression and mental illnesses however this study allowed social workers to develop the social model of depression, a thinking which challenged the medical model and looked for a much broader understanding of the reasons for depression. Furthermore, this study was connected to the growing awareness of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s unequal position in society and in the family, so whilst it did not originate from feminist enquiry the study helped the evolving feminist movement which began to give women a voice in society. It also led to the development in the understanding of the demands of caring for children and the impact of the reduction in the extended family at this time. This study is very important to Social Work practice as it strengthened the role of social work with families and individuals who are in distress through community based practice. It also allowed women and mothersÃ¢â¬â¢ networks to strengthen as the study helped shine a light on the difficulties of being a mother, of experiencing different life events and the difficulties related to being working class. The study highlights the importance of social work values like anti-oppressive practice that strive towards equality for women and the recognition that wha t women feel should be understand. Furthermore, this study is extremely important to social work practice as it allows social workers to understand the roots of depression in women. This study shines a light on the social factors that lead to depression, social workers can use this study to identify what social factors lead to depression and target these factors and implement prevention techniques for those women who are most likely to develop depression. Advantages and Disadvantages of methodology Brown and Harris used a mixed methodology in their research. Statistical data was gathered and analysed by Brown and Harris, alongside the qualitative data obtained by individual narrative and stories. They used a mixture of qualitative and quantitative methods which increases validity and reliability. Reliable data means that the research could be repeated and the same results would occur and valid data means itÃ¢â¬â¢s a true picture of what the researcher is trying to measure. Brown and Harris used random sampling in their research and they used the sample of 458 women to represent the target population Ã¢â¬â middle class and working class women. Random sampling means their research is representative of the target population and they can therefore make generalisations about depression suffered by middle class women in contrast to working class women. Brown and Harris carried out semi-structured interviews meaning that the women could be asked open-ended questions which would give qualitative data, increasing validity by obtaining an in-depth understanding of the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s situations. Interviews mean that the conversation developed naturally and so is a good method for researching sensitive issues like depression as the natural conversation allows the interviewee to feel relaxed and able to open up more to their interviewer. Interviews also allow a relationship to build between researcher and respondents. Brown and Harris continued their research over a long period of time (1969/71 and again in 1974/75) which would also strengthen their relationship with the women, allowing their evidence to be more valid and paint a true picture. However, there have been criticisms made of the methodology used by Brown and Harris. Tennant and Bebbington (1978) criticise Brown and HarrisÃ¢â¬â¢ methodology on the basis of their random sampling. They argue that 15% of households in the sample had 2 or more age-eligible women living in them, but Brown and Harris only chose one. Tennant and Bebbington therefore argue that there is bias in the sample and that larger than average households are slightly underrepresented in their research. Tennant and Bebbington (1978) further criticise Brown and Harris on their Ã¢â¬Å"conceptualization and definitionÃ¢â¬ of the concept of Ã¢â¬Å"vulnerability factorsÃ¢â¬ . Tennant and Bebbington argue that the construction of the vulnerability factor Ã¢â¬Å"parental lossÃ¢â¬ is open to criticism. Brown and Harris argue that maternal loss influences the risk of depression whereas paternal loss doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t affect the risk of developing depression. They argue that BrownÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of loss consists of three different variables, Ã¢â¬Å"loss through death, separation from one parent, and marital separation of the parentsÃ¢â¬ events which Tennant and Bebbington describe as Ã¢â¬Å"qualitatively quite differentÃ¢â¬ and that the composition of Ã¢â¬Å"maternalÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"paternalÃ¢â¬ loss groups may be so different that they are not valid to compare their impact on mental health (1978). They argue that in the instance of separation women usually get the custod y resulting in a paternal loss and regarding death, the risk of losing fathers in childhood is greater than the risk of losing your mother (Langer and Michael 1963 cited by Tennant and Bebbington 1978) and so this comparison in relation to depression is misleading and it would be much more appropriate to compare maternal/paternal death and maternal/paternal separation for more valid results. Conclusion In conclusion, I would argue that this research study by Brown and Harris is undeniably important to Social Work practice. Through its mixed methodology, using both qualitative and quantitative methods of research, it proves a very reliable and valid picture of class differences and social factors linked to womenÃ¢â¬â¢s mental health. This research is vital to Social Work practice as it marks a turning point in a change in attitude towards mental health, a shift away from the medical model to a social model of depression. It underpins values that are at the heart of Social Work practice like anti-oppressive practice and equality for women. Word count: 1941 Bibliography Brown, G, W. Harris, T, (1984) 10. Social class, provoking agents, and depression' from Brown, G W. Harris, T, Social origins of depression: a study of psychiatric disorder in women pp.150-169,353-358, London: Tavistock Publications Brown, G. W., Harris, T. (1978). Social origins of depression: a reply.Psychol Med,8(4), 577-88. Tennant, C., Bebbington, P. (1978). The social causation of depression: a critique of the work of Brown and his colleagues.Psychological Medicine,8(04), 565-575.