Friday, July 19, 2019

Decline of Amphibians Essay -- Animal Research

Introduction When researching the population decline of amphibians as a global issue, it is evident that there have been drastic changes in the past 30 years. Mike Lannoo from the U.S. Declining Amphibian Task Force says that there have been significant losses in amphibian populations for an extensive period of time (No Single Reason, 1999). Stuart et al. (2004) stated that according to scientists at the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), at least 427 species, roughly 7.4%, are at a dangerously high risk of extinction (Kaylor, 2006). The problem of amphibian decline cannot be linked directly to one single cause (No Single Reason, 1999). Instead, scientists have related the decline to disease, habitat loss, changes in climate, and pollution (Hayes, Falso, Gallipeau, Stice, 2010; Brooks et al., 2002; Dunson et al., 1992). It is concluded that many of these factors are related to and possibly caused by human interaction (McCallum, 2007). The declines could be caused by pathogens, climate change, or wildlife toxicology, says Dr. Ashley Mattoon from the Worldwatch Institute (Kirby, 2000). Amphibian decline is a serious global topic and is especially harmful in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Specifically, there are many causes of amphibian decline in Virginia. The Weldon Cooper Center at the University of Virginia ranks Virginia 12th in population at an annual growth rate of 7% (Kelhart, 2006). Of Virginia’s 79 species of amphibians, four species are classified as near threatened, three species are classified as vulnerable, and one species is classified as endangered (Amphibians in VA, n.d.). The problem of amphibian decline can be traced back to many sources, which can either be classified as n... ...ander (Desmognathus fuscus) of southern Appalachia. Retrieved from ScienceDirect website: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306456500000528 No Single Reason for Amphibian Decline. (1999, November 19). ScienceDaily. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1999/11/991119075426.htm Sexton, O. J., Phillips, C., & Bramble, J. E. (1990, September 19). The Effects of Temperature and Precipitation on the Breeding Migration of the Spotted Salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) [Press ]. Retrieved February 14, 2012, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/info/1446443#ufo Stuart, S. N., Chanson, J. S., Cox, N. A., Young, B. E., Rodrigues, A. S. L., Fischman, D. L., & Waller, R. W. (2004, October 14). Status and Trends of Amphibian Declines and Extinctions Worldwide. Abstract retrieved from Science Mag website: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/306/5702/1783

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